Surimi: Solutions for Processing Industrial Waste

Palemahan - The marine fisheries sector in Indonesia has very rich and varied potential. Capture fisheries is one type of economic activity that continues to experience development as a center for supplying raw materials for the catch processing industry. In 2016, fisheries production data published by the Directorate General of Capture Fisheries, Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries showed an increase in fishery production, especially in the Fisheries Management Area of the Republic of Indonesia (WPPNRI) from 485 thousand tons in 2005 to 587 thousand tons in 2015. One of these achievements was obtained from demersal fish commodities, namely 18.5%.

Most of the demersal fish groups live on the bottom of relatively shallow, flat and muddy waters. This group of fish generally forms schools that are not large, have short migratory movements, and have relatively low swimming activity [1]. Based on production data for the main species of demersal fish in WPPNRI, it is known that red snapper had a total production of nearly 14 thousand tons in 2015. This shows that red snapper has high potential to be developed in the fisheries industry.

The Other Side of the Industrial Presence
The red snapper industry is dominated by the filet industry, both fresh and frozen. The development of the filet industry raises a new problem, namely the presence of waste as a result of processing activities. The forms of waste include: fish heads, bones, meat, stomach contents, and fish scales. Meat waste consists of sorted fish meat that does not meet the standards and leftover meat that is still attached to the fish bones. Fish meat that does not meet standards is usually used by home industry as processed raw materials, such as baso, dumplings, otak-otak, and pempek. Meanwhile, the remaining meat that is still attached to the fish bones has not been used much [2].

Surimi Comes as a Solution
The red snapper filet waste that is still attached to the bone is separated by scraping. This filet waste has a high protein content but the color is not bright white so it is not attractive to use. One way to improve the color of meat while at the same time increasing added value is to process it into surimi.

The word surimi comes from Japan which has been accepted internationally and means crushed fish meat that has undergone a process of deboning, washing, dewatering, and adding cryoprotectant, followed by or without treatment so that it has the ability to form a gel and bind water [3]. Surimi can be used as a raw material for the manufacture of subsequent products, such as: meatballs, sausages, nuggets, fish sticks, agemono, detemaki, and several imitation products such as: eggs, crab legs or meat, shrimp, clam meat, and beef.

Development of the Surimi Industry
Consumption of products made from surimi has increased, especially in developed countries, such as the United States. People are starting to realize about the benefits of fish and avoid livestock meat that contains saturated fat. In addition, fish raw materials are available in abundant quantities at affordable prices [4].

Manufacture of surimi should be carried out as hygienically as possible and at low temperatures. Machines and equipment used must be made of stainless steel or non-metallic materials to prevent rust. Various automatic machines have been invented to increase the efficiency of fish handling, including fish weeding machines and meat separators which can be adjusted so that very little red meat escapes. In addition, a decanter has been created that can separate fish oil from washing water, making it easier to handle processing waste.

[1] Wijopriono. (2019). Potensi Kelimpahan Stok dan Tingkat Eksploitasi Sumber Daya Ikan di WPPNRI 713. AMAFRAD Press: Jakarta.

[2] Rostini, I. (2013). Pemanfaatan Daging Limbah Filet Ikan Kakap Merah Sebagai Bahan Baku Surimi Untuk Produk Perikanan. Jurnal Akuatika Vol. IV No. 2. Universitas Padjajaran: Sumedang.

[3] Lanier, T. C., & Lee, C. M. (Eds.). (1992). Surimi technology (pp. 123-163). New York: Marcel Dekker.

[4] Anggawati. A. M. (2002). Kumpulan Hasil-Hasil Penilitian Pasca Panen Perikanan. Pusat Riset Pengolahan Produk Dan Sosial Ekonomi. Departemen Kelautan Dan Perikanan: Jakarta.

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